This section shows you how to perform basic search functions using Library.Solution PAC. L.S PAC is a public access catalog that utilizes your computer's Internet Web browser (such as Microsoft's Explorer or Netscape's Navigator). If you are unfamiliar with the navigational features of your Web browser, consult the browser's Help before proceeding with instructions that follow.
Do a broad keyword search;
View the general search process;
Perform author searches;
Limit searches by publication date, language, format, and place of publication;
Perform title searches;
Conduct Boolean searches;
Conduct wildcard searches;
Conduct combination searches;
Browse the catalog;
Change the record display;
Create and print bibliographies;
Download or print MARC records.
If you are using the PAC in a library, the home page of your public access catalog should
already be displayed (Figure 1). From the home page you can:
To perform a general keyword search of the catalog, type anything in the search query box on the home page and click Search. The results returned are based on searching all categories in the catalog (author, title, subject, and notes). For more information go to our keyword searching hints page. To perform a simple search, select Search. A new page will appear (Figure 2).
The following search elements are available:
Recognizing Elements of the Search Window
Viewing the Simple Search Process
If you are using the PAC in a library, the home page of your public access catalog should already be displayed (Figure 1).
From the home page you can:
To perform a general keyword search of the catalog, type anything in the search query box on the home page and click Search. The results returned are based on searching all categories in the catalog (author, title, subject, and notes). For more information go to our keyword searching hints page.
To perform a simple search, select Search. A new page will appear (Figure 2). The following search elements are available:
Understanding the options available in the simple search process (the Search option) will help you plan your search strategy and obtain consistent search results. A sample search is shown in:
In general, the following steps (Figure 3a through 3d) are performed:
The Home and Help buttons are available throughout the search process, the first returning you to the PAC home page, and the second providing access to online Help page. (The New Search, Browse, and Combination Search buttons are also available and are described later.) Notice that some of the text on various pages is underlined, indicating that additional information is linked to selected text. If you wish to look at the screen previously displayed during your search, select the Back button on your web browser.
This is a good time to practice navigating through the PAC. Follow the sequences displayed in Figures 3a through 3d. When you are finished, click the Home button to return to the home page.
Library.Solution PAC lets you search your catalog's author, title, subject, and notes indexes separately or in combination. Although searching is a simple, straightforward process, understanding the elements of search and display features will help you obtain reliable, consistent results.
The following examples illustrate the variety of results obtained from a search of William Shakespeare using the single Search feature.
To search for works written by William Shakespeare:
So far you've seen that author searches can be limited by word order and word position. They also can be limited by date of publication, language, format, and place of publication. (Branch Collection limiting can be added using the PAC Configuration program.) To use the search limiting features:
To search for works with William Shakespeare in the title:
In the previous sections you learned how to search for individual words (Shakespeare) or phrases (William Shakespeare) in the catalog. L.S. PAC also lets you search for words and phrases in certain combinations. This feature is known as Boolean searching, and the symbols used to connect words and phrases are called Boolean operators. The following table illustrates the operators available, sample searches, and the desired results.
|AND or &||Shakespeare & Bard||Search for both Shakespeare and bard anywhere in the same field|
|OR or |||Shakespeare OR Bard||Search for Shakespeare or bard anywhere in the same field|
|NOT or ~||Shakespeare ~ Bard||Search for Shakespeare and not bard in the same field|
Before you try your hand at Boolean Searching from the Search the Catalog page, remember that:
When you enter a search query in the "word(s)" box and press Find, the PAC reads your entry from left to right, using the Boolean operators and other symbols. It does not combine adjacent words into phrases unless you give it further instruction. For example, if you entered
as a search query, the PAC would search for records that contained all four words in any order. This problem can be solved by nesting words within parentheses. For example, the query
would cause the PAC to search for occurrences of William Shakespeare and then search among the results for records that also contained Julius Caesar. Try using the two search queries presented above to see if different results are produced. Can you figure out what the following query would retrieve?
*Find the phrase William Shakespeare or the phrase Julius Caesar where it does not appear with the phrase George Lyman Kittredge.
Conducting Wildcard Searches
L.S. PAC allows you to search for partial words in the search query box by using the wildcard symbol * to the right of a word stem. For example, a search of titles that begin with sales* might return a results list with titles starting with Salesperson, Salesmanship, or similar words. A contains search on titles using the query sales* might return a results list with titles such as Death of a Salesman or Effective Sales Management.
You may also use the * character in a search as a substitute for any individual character. For example, a titles search on wom*n will return results that include both woman and women.
Exact Phrase Searches
You can designate exact phrases to search by enclosing them in quotes ("All's Well that Ends Well").
So far you have learned how to
The skills you have developed can also be applied to subject, notes, and any items searches. Try the following searches to expand your skills:
You have just learned how to perform a Boolean search using the Search option. This section shows you how to perform Boolean searches using the Combination search function.First, the Combination search page has three search entry lines instead of just one (Figure 14). For each entry line, you can select the type of entry to be searched. Click the down arrow beside each selection box on the right and choose Title, Author, Subject, or Note. After the first and second entry lines, select one of the Boolean operators AND, OR or NOT to determine the relationship between a search term and the term following. If you use two different operators select the radio button that describes how search terms should be grouped: (Term 1 OPERATOR Term 2) OPERATOR Term 3 Term 1 OPERATOR (Term 2 OPERATOR Term 3) Second, while Search performs a single search, the Combination search performs up to three individual searches and combines the results according to the relationships you defined among the search terms. Using Search, you could build a search query that looked in the author and subject indexes for Nathaniel Hawthorne AND John Brown (Figure 15). The results would display items for which both Nathaniel Hawthorne and John Brown were joint authors and subject entries which listed both Nathaniel Hawthorne and John Brown. (You would probably get few, if any, results.) You could also search the author index separately for works written by Nathaniel Hawthorne, and the subject index separately for John Brown. (You would probably get plenty of results, but you would have to review them to see if any were relevant.) Using the Combination search feature, you could build a search query that looked only in the author field for Nathaniel Hawthorne and only in the subject field for John Brown (Figure 16). You could also specify that both conditions must be met before results are displayed. (To do this, select the Boolean AND between the first and second entry lines.) Depending on the contents of your library catalog, you could find the relevant item quickly and easily. There is no difference between the way individual search queries are built in Search and Combination searches. You can use boolean operators within a search query (search for Nathaniel Hawthorne AND John Brown) as well as use wildcards (*), and phrases (enclosed in quotation marks). You can also Set Limits in either search mode.
The Browse feature gives you a different way to search for and display results than the Search and Combination search options.
First, it lets you select Titles, Authors, Subjects, Notes, Local Call No., Dewey Call No., GPO, ISBN, ISSN, LC Call No., OR LCCN. (Only one field can be searched at a time.)
Second, it creates a list of the results for your limited search and displays then in the form of a list in which you can move up or down (browse).
For example, you could perform a Title search for works containing Shakespeare (Figure 17). The results would be available in the form of a word list which you can browse using the up or down arrows (Figure 18).
You could also perform a Dewey Call number search (Figure 19). Your results would be available in the form of a numeric list which you can browse using the up or down arrows (Figure 20). (To search your own library's call numbers, use Local Call.)
L.S PAC lets you change the way individual records look. The default display option (also known as the Labeled display) is shown in Figure 21. (Since the display is configurable by Library staff, the screen you view may differ slightly from this illustration.) Note that the labeled display may include:
Information about the item's location is also shown, including:
You may also view the record in MARC record format by selecting the MARC button at the top of the screen. A view similar to the one shown in Figure 22 is displayed, showing the individual record fields and their contents. To return to the previous display, select the Label button at the top of the screen.
Note: If you wish to know more about MARC record format, consult the L.S Cataloging module's Cataloger's Reference Shelf.
L.S PAC lets you save individual records in MARC format to a file for later use. (This feature is designed primarily for persons who catalog items using L.S Cataloging.) To save an individual record in MARC format, select the MARC Download button from the top of the record display. If you do NOT have L.S Cataloging open, the following message will appear: MARC Record saved to L.S Cataloging queue. and the record will be available the next time you open the Cataloging module. If L.S Cataloging is open, the record will be placed in an Edit window.
You can use the Windows Print feature to print files you have saved, and your browser print feature to print records displayed on screen.
You can save, display, organize, and print records you select from your searches. To save a record to a bibliography:
Return to the PAC Home Page.